Safe Referential Structures in Relational Databases.

Victor M. Markowitz: Safe Referential Structures in Relational Databases. VLDB 1991: 123-132
  author    = {Victor M. Markowitz},
  editor    = {Guy M. Lohman and
               Am\'{\i}lcar Sernadas and
               Rafael Camps},
  title     = {Safe Referential Structures in Relational Databases},
  booktitle = {17th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, September
               3-6, 1991, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Proceedings},
  publisher = {Morgan Kaufmann},
  year      = {1991},
  isbn      = {1-55860-150-3},
  pages     = {123-132},
  ee        = {db/conf/vldb/Markowitz91.html},
  crossref  = {DBLP:conf/vldb/91},
  bibsource = {DBLP,}


Referential integrity constraints express in relational databases existence dependencies between tuples. Although it is known that certain referential integrity structures may cause data manipulation problems, the nature of these problems has not been explored and the conditions for avoiding them have not been formally developed. In this paper we examine these data manipulation problems and formally develop safeness conditions for avoiding them. Next, we discuss the problem of specifying safe referential integrity constraints in three representative relational database management systems, IBM's DB2, SYBASE, and INGRES.

Copyright © 1991 by the VLDB Endowment. Permission to copy without fee all or part of this material is granted provided that the copies are not made or distributed for direct commercial advantage, the VLDB copyright notice and the title of the publication and its date appear, and notice is given that copying is by the permission of the Very Large Data Base Endowment. To copy otherwise, or to republish, requires a fee and/or special permission from the Endowment.

Online Paper

ACM SIGMOD Anthology

CDROM Version: Load the CDROM "Volume 1 Issue 5, VLDB '89-'97" and ... DVD Version: Load ACM SIGMOD Anthology DVD 1" and ... BibTeX

Printed Edition

Guy M. Lohman, Amílcar Sernadas, Rafael Camps (Eds.): 17th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, September 3-6, 1991, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Proceedings. Morgan Kaufmann 1991, ISBN 1-55860-150-3


E. F. Codd: Extending the Database Relational Model to Capture More Meaning. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 4(4): 397-434(1979) BibTeX
C. J. Date: Referential Integrity. VLDB 1981: 2-12 BibTeX
David Maier: The Theory of Relational Databases. Computer Science Press 1983, ISBN 0-914894-42-0
Contents BibTeX
Victor M. Markowitz: Referential Integrity Revisited: An Object-Oriented Perspective. VLDB 1990: 578-589 BibTeX
Victor M. Markowitz, Johann A. Makowsky: Identifying Extended Entity-Relationship Object Structures in Relational Schemas. IEEE Trans. Software Eng. 16(8): 777-790(1990) BibTeX
Victor M. Markowitz: Problems Underlying the Use of Referential Integrity in Relational Database Management Systems. ICDE 1991: Proceedings Supplement BibTeX

Referenced by

  1. Theo Härder, Joachim Reinert: Access Path Support for Referential Integrity in SQL2. VLDB J. 5(3): 196-214(1996)
  2. Roberta Cochrane, Hamid Pirahesh, Nelson Mendonça Mattos: Integrating Triggers and Declarative Constraints in SQL Database Sytems. VLDB 1996: 567-578
  3. Gerti Kappel, Michael Schrefl: Local Referential Integrity. ER 1992: 41-61
ACM SIGMOD Anthology - DBLP: [Home | Search: Author, Title | Conferences | Journals]
VLDB Proceedings: Copyright © by VLDB Endowment,
ACM SIGMOD Anthology: Copyright © by ACM (, Corrections:
DBLP: Copyright © by Michael Ley (, last change: Sat May 16 23:45:47 2009